Identification of Immunohistochemical Reagents for In Situ Protein Expression Analysis of Coronavirus-associated Changes in Human Tissues

Identification of Immunohistochemical Reagents for In Situ Protein Expression Analysis of Coronavirus-associated Changes in Human Tissues

Identification of Immunohistochemical Reagents for In Situ Protein Expression Analysis of Coronavirus-associated Changes in Human Tissues

We studied the suitability of commercially accessible monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) in normal archival specimens. Antibodies had been screened on HEK293 cells transfected with viral nucleoprotein, S1 subunit and S2 subunit of spike protein and on untransfected cells, in addition to a panel of regular tissue. Lung tissue with presence of SARS-CoV2 confirmed by in situ hybridization (ISH) was additionally used.
A complete of 7 mAbs had been examined: (1) mAb 001 (Sino Biological, 40143-R001), (2) mAb 007 (Sino Biological, 40150-R007), (3) mAb 019 (Sino Biological, 40143-R019), (4) mAb 1A9 (GeneTex, GTX632604), (5) mAb ABM19C9 (Abeomics, 10-10007), (6) FIPV3-70 (Santa Cruz, SC-65653), and (7) mAb 6F10 (BioVision, A2060). Only 2 mAbs, clone 001 to the nucleoprotein and clone 1A9 to the S2 subunit spike protein displayed particular immunoreactivity.
Both clones confirmed robust staining in the acute part of COVID-19 pneumonia, principally in areas of acute diffuse alveolar harm, however weren’t fully congruent. Viral protein was additionally discovered in kidney tubules, endothelia of a number of organs and a nasal swab of a affected person with persistent SARS-CoV2 an infection. The different examined reagents had been both poorly reactive or demonstrated nonspecific staining in tissues and lesions not contaminated by SARS-CoV2.
Our research demonstrates that inflexible specificity testing is obligatory for the analysis of mAbs to SARS-CoV2 and that clones 001 to nucleoprotein and 1A9 to S2 subunit spike protein are helpful for the in situ detection of SARS-CoV2.

Depolymerization of Lignin into Monophenolics By Ferrous/ Persulfate Reagent Under Mild Conditions

This research goals to make use of a persulfate plus transition steel ions because the reagent to successfully depolymerize lignin into monophenolic compounds below delicate situations (ambient strain, temperature < 100 °C). The Box-Behnken experimental design in mixture with the response floor methodology is utilized to acquire optimized response situations. The outcomes present that this reagent can depolymerize as much as 99% of lignin dimers to primarily veratraldehyde.
This response additionally efficiently depolymerizes the economic lignins to the excessive yield of phenolic oils and monophenolic compounds. Quantum chemistry calculations utilizing the density purposeful concept stage point out that the persulfate free radical assaults Cβ to interrupt the β-O-Four bond of lignin by a five-membered ring mechanism. This mechanism utilizing persulfate free radicals has a decrease activation barrier than that utilizing hydroxyl radicals. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) reveal the efficient cleavage of the β-O-Four bonds of lignin after depolymerization.

Reagents-Loaded, Automated Assay that Integrates Recombinase-Aided Amplification and Cas12a Nucleic Acid Detection for a Point-of-Care Test

Point-of-care testing for nucleic acid that mixes amplification and readout is in nice demand. This report integrates recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) with the clustered commonly interspaced quick palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas12a system in a centrifugal microfluidic point-of-care check. We overcome the problem in the combination of these two processes, which primarily lies in the truth that Cas12a can digest the template DNA. We additional combine all reagents into the centrifugal microfluidics to automate your entire course of.
Identification of Immunohistochemical Reagents for In Situ Protein Expression Analysis of Coronavirus-associated Changes in Human Tissues
The Cas12a-assisted simple microfluidic tools for evaluation of nucleic acid (CASMEAN) allows us to quickly and conveniently detect nucleic acid inside 1.5 h. An software for detecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa confirms the superb compatibility between RAA and the Cas12a system, which ensures the superior efficiency of CASMEAN, resembling capabilities of point-of-care detection, excessive sensitivity, and excessive specificity. CASMEAN is a genetic detection platform with nice potential.

Development of α,α-Disubstituted Crotylboronate Reagents and Stereoselective Crotylation by way of Brønsted or Lewis Acid Catalysis

The improvement of α,α-disubstituted crotylboronate reagents is reported. Chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed uneven aldehyde addition with the developed E-crotylboron reagent gave (E)-anti-1,2-oxaborinan-3-enes with wonderful enantioselectivities and E-selectivities. With BF3·OEt2 catalysis, the stereoselectivity is reversed, and (Z)-δ-boryl-anti-homoallylic alcohols are obtained with wonderful Z-selectivities from the identical E-crotylboron reagent. The Z-crotylboron reagent additionally participates in BF3·OEt2-catalyzed crotylation to furnish (Z)-δ-boryl-syn-homoallylic alcohols with good Z-selectivities.
DFT computations set up the origins of noticed enantio- and stereoselectivities of chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed uneven allylation. Stereochemical fashions for BF3·OEt2-catalyzed reactions are proposed to rationalize the Z-selective allyl additions. These reactions generate extremely invaluable homoallylic alcohol merchandise with a stereodefined trisubstituted alkene unit. The artificial utility is additional demonstrated by the overall syntheses of salinipyrones A and B.

Organic acid shift reagents for the discrimination of carbohydrate isobars by ion mobility-mass spectrometry

Carbohydrates are probably the most ample class of biomolecules on Earth with a various array of organic capabilities. It is hypothesized that they probably had an vital position in the event of life on the primoridal Earth as effectively. Since sugars have a spread of potential isobaric buildings, it’s essential to characterize oligosaccharides past their molecular weight. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) is a promising characterization method for this objective, as it’s based mostly on variations in cost and collision cross part (CCS).
This research experiences on the use of new noncovalent ligands as shift reagents to help in the IM separations of disaccharides. A range of natural acids had been examined as shift reagents with touring wave IM with probably the most promising ones being additional investigated by drift tube IM. Drift tube IM supplied increased decision separations for the big majority of disaccharide complexes studied.

Human Serum (Myoglobin Free)

90R-110 100 ml
EUR 1105
Description: Myoglobin free normal human serum

VitroPlus III, Serum-Free, Xeno-Free, Complete

PC00B2 500 ml
EUR 375

EZ-DNA Reagents

SK8201 100preps
EUR 93.5

EZ-DNA Reagents

BS8202 100preps
EUR 88.06

Human Free PSA (f-PSA) ELISA Kit

PRB-5049-FREE-5 5 x 96 assays
EUR 2283

Bovine Serum Albumin, protease free

GK4012-1KG 1 kg
EUR 971

Bovine Serum Albumin, protease free

GK4012-500G 500 g
EUR 532

PK15 Cell Serum-Free Medium

VCum-Lsx0007 1 L
EUR 758
Description: PK15 cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of PK-15 cells.

CHO Cell Serum-Free Medium

VCum-Lsx0025 1L
EUR 635
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of CHO cell lines (CHO DG44, CHO-K1 and CHO-S).

HEK Cell Serum-Free Medium

VCum-Lsx0027 1L
EUR 635
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of HEK cell lines.

MDBK Cell Serum-Free Medium

VCum-Lsx0029 1L
EUR 682
Description: Used in serum-free suspension MDBK cell line culture for bovine virus diarrhea or bovine rhinotracheitis vaccine production.

Vero Cell Serum-Free Medium

VCum-Lsx0031 1 L
EUR 758
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of Vero cell lines.

Serum Albumin, Lipid Free Protein

20-abx260049
  • EUR 773.00
  • EUR 286.00
  • EUR 523.00
  • 100 mg
  • 10 mg
  • 50 mg

Human Serum (Troponin I Free)

90R-106 100 ml
EUR 1181
Description: Troponion I free normal human serum

Fetal Bovine Serum, Premium Tetracyclin Free

F0500-050 500ml
EUR 1157

Bovine Serum Albumin, fatty acid free

GX5685-1KG 1 kg
EUR 1202

Bovine Serum Albumin, fatty acid free

GX5685-500G 500 g
EUR 660

ST Cell Serum-Free Medium-1

VCum-Lsx0001 1 L
EUR 740
Description: ST cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of ST cells.

ST Cell Serum-Free Medium-2

VCum-Lsx0003 1 L
EUR 758
Description: ST cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of ST cells.

PK15 Cell Serum-Free Medium (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0008-10L 10 L
EUR 2332
Description: PK15 cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of PK-15 cells.

PK15 Cell Serum-Free Medium (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0008-1L 1 L
EUR 278
Description: PK15 cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of PK-15 cells.

PK15 Cell Serum-Free Medium (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0008-5L 5 L
EUR 1191
Description: PK15 cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of PK-15 cells.

MDCK Cell Serum-Free Medium-1

VCum-Lsx0009 1 L
EUR 682
Description: MDCK cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of MDCK cells.

MDCK Cell Serum-Free Medium-2

VCum-Lsx0011 1 L
EUR 694
Description: Used in serum-free suspension MDCK cell line culture for avian influenza vaccine production.

BHK Cell Serum-Free Medium-1

VCum-Lsx0017 1 L
EUR 647
Description: BHK cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of BHK cells.

BHK Cell Serum-Free Medium-2

VCum-Lsx0019 1 L
EUR 717
Description: Used in serum-free suspension BHK cell line culture for newcastle disease virus production.

Insect Cell Serum-Free Medium-1

VCum-Lsx0021 1 L
EUR 740
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of insect cell lines (HighFive, SF9).

Insect Cell Serum-Free Medium-2

VCum-Lsx0023 1 L
EUR 758
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of insect cell lines (HighFive, SF9).

CHO Cell Serum-Free Medium (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0026-10L 10 L
EUR 1747
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of CHO cell lines (CHO DG44, CHO-K1 and CHO-S).

CHO Cell Serum-Free Medium (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0026-1L 1 L
EUR 220
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of CHO cell lines (CHO DG44, CHO-K1 and CHO-S).

CHO Cell Serum-Free Medium (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0026-5L 5 L
EUR 898
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of CHO cell lines (CHO DG44, CHO-K1 and CHO-S).

HEK Cell Serum-Free Medium (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0028 50 L
EUR 6411
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of HEK cell lines.

MDBK Cell Serum-Free Medium (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0030 50 L
EUR 8591
Description: Used in serum-free suspension MDBK cell line culture for bovine virus diarrhea or bovine rhinotracheitis vaccine production.

Vero Cell Serum-Free Medium (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0032-10L 10 L
EUR 2332
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of Vero cell lines.

Vero Cell Serum-Free Medium (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0032-1L 1 L
EUR 282
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of Vero cell lines.

Vero Cell Serum-Free Medium (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0032-5L 5 L
EUR 1208
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of Vero cell lines.

B-27 Serum-Free Supplement (50x)

abx082466-10ml 10 ml
EUR 328

CORNING® LYMPHOCYTE SERUM FREE MEDIUM

88-551-CM 1/pk
EUR 149
Description: Specialty Media; Kohjin Products

CORNING® LYMPHOCYTE SERUM FREE MEDIUM

88-581-CM 1/pk
EUR 189
Description: Specialty Media; Kohjin Products

Normal Bovine Serum (Protease/IgG free)

88R-1012 10 ml
EUR 182
Description: Normal Bovine Serum which has been lipid extracted and dialyzed against 10 mM Sodium Phosphate, 0.15 M Sodium Chloride, pH 7.2

Purified rat serum albumin protein (RSA, >99%, globulin free)

ALBR13-N-10 10 mg
EUR 286

Set of 10 Biolipidure Reagents

Biolipidure-set 10mLx10
EUR 1517
Description: Set of 10 Biolipidure Reagents, whose applications include Immunoassays, Western blots, Immunohistochemistry, Turbidimetric assays, Immunochromatography, and Bead based assays. Benefits include: No lot to lot variation, No animal derived materials, Non-specific adsorption suppression, Stabilization of immobilized antibody, Stabilization of enzyme-antibody conjugate, Enzyme-substrate reaction enhancement and aggregation reaction enhancement

ST Cell Serum-Free Medium-1 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0002-10L 10 L
EUR 2215
Description: ST cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of ST cells.

ST Cell Serum-Free Medium-1 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0002-1L 1 L
EUR 266
Description: ST cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of ST cells.

ST Cell Serum-Free Medium-1 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0002-5L 5 L
EUR 1132
Description: ST cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of ST cells.

ST Cell Serum-Free Medium-2 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0004-10L 10 L
EUR 2332
Description: ST cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of ST cells.

ST Cell Serum-Free Medium-2 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0004-1L 1 L
EUR 278
Description: ST cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of ST cells.

ST Cell Serum-Free Medium-2 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0004-5L 5 L
EUR 1191
Description: ST cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of ST cells.

MDCK Cell Serum-Free Medium-1 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0010-10L 10 L
EUR 1864
Description: MDCK cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of MDCK cells.

MDCK Cell Serum-Free Medium-1 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0010-1L 1 L
EUR 231
Description: MDCK cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of MDCK cells.

MDCK Cell Serum-Free Medium-1 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0010-5L 5 L
EUR 957
Description: MDCK cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of MDCK cells.

MDCK Cell Serum-Free Medium-2 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0012-10L 10 L
EUR 1922
Description: Used in serum-free suspension MDCK cell line culture for avian influenza vaccine production.

MDCK Cell Serum-Free Medium-2 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0012-1L 1 L
EUR 237
Description: Used in serum-free suspension MDCK cell line culture for avian influenza vaccine production.

MDCK Cell Serum-Free Medium-2 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0012-5L 5 L
EUR 986
Description: Used in serum-free suspension MDCK cell line culture for avian influenza vaccine production.

BHK Cell Serum-Free Medium-1 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0018-10L 10 L
EUR 1688
Description: BHK cellserum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of BHK cells.

BHK Cell Serum-Free Medium-1 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0018-1L 1 L
EUR 214
Description: BHK cellserum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of BHK cells.

BHK Cell Serum-Free Medium-1 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0018-5L 5 L
EUR 869
Description: BHK cellserum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of BHK cells.

BHK Cell Serum-Free Medium-2 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0020-10L 10 L
EUR 1922
Description: Used in serum-free suspension BHK cell line culture for newcastle disease virus production.

BHK Cell Serum-Free Medium-2 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0020-1L 1 L
EUR 237
Description: Used in serum-free suspension BHK cell line culture for newcastle disease virus production.

BHK Cell Serum-Free Medium-2 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0020-5L 5 L
EUR 986
Description: Used in serum-free suspension BHK cell line culture for newcastle disease virus production.

Insect Cell Serum-Free Medium-1 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0022-10L 10 L
EUR 2215
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of insect cell lines (HighFive, SF9).

Insect Cell Serum-Free Medium-1 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0022-1L 1 L
EUR 266
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of insect cell lines (HighFive, SF9).

Insect Cell Serum-Free Medium-1 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0022-5L 5 L
EUR 1132
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of insect cell lines (HighFive, SF9).

Insect Cell Serum-Free Medium-2 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0024-10L 10 L
EUR 2332
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of insect cell lines (HighFive, SF9).

Insect Cell Serum-Free Medium-2 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0024-1L 1 L
EUR 278
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of insect cell lines (HighFive, SF9).

Insect Cell Serum-Free Medium-2 (Powder)

VCum-Lsx0024-5L 5 L
EUR 1191
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of insect cell lines (HighFive, SF9).

Human Apolipoprotein AI / B Free Serum Protein

abx060869-100ml 100 ml
EUR 495

Custom production of antibodies in 5 Rats using customer supplied antigen (std 63 days protocol)

RAT-5 1
EUR 1138

Exo-Flow 2.0 Basic Kit without antibody (Streptavidin beads + reagents) - for Serum or Plasma

EXOFLOW2-BASICA-SP 30 rxn
EUR 1001

Bradford(Coomassie) Protein Assay Plus Reagents

P7201-050 450ml
EUR 188

HSA Human Serum Albumin Recombinant Protein, Lipid Free

PROTP02768-3 Regular: 50mg
EUR 471
Description: HSA Human Recombinant lipid reduced produced in Plant is a non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 585 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 67 kDa.

Insect Cell Medium: Serum-Free Insect Culture Medium

ABP-MED-10002 1 liter Ask for price

Bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein (>99%, Protease-free)

BSA16-N-100 100 mg
EUR 286

Rat Serum

abx098267-10ml 10 ml
EUR 272

500 ML INSECTAGRO® DS2 SERUM-FREE/PROTEIN-FREE MEDIUM, 1X WITHOUT L-GLUTAMINE

13-402-CV 500 mL/pk
EUR 153
Description: Specialty Media; Insect Media Products

Rabbit control serum (non-immunized, Disease free, SPF Rabbits)

NSPF-1 1 ml
EUR 286

Rabbit control serum (non-immunized, Disease free, SPF Rabbits)

NSPF-10 10 ml
EUR 651

Rabbit control serum (non-immunized, Disease free, SPF Rabbits)

NSPF-5 5 ml
EUR 529

Human Male AB Serum (Converted from Plasma), Xeno-Free

AR1005-0100 100mL Ask for price

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Heat Shock, Protease Free, pH 7.0

7919-100
EUR 653

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Heat Shock, Protease Free, pH 7.0

7919-25
EUR 245

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Heat Shock, Protease Free, pH 7.0

7919-5
EUR 120

Purified rat serum albumin protein (RSA, >99%, fatty acid and globulin free)

ALBR14-N-10 10 mg
EUR 347

Free-T3/ Rat Free- T3 ELISA Kit

ELA-E0450r 96 Tests
EUR 886

Human IgG (serum origin, purified >97%, low endotoxin, azide free)

20007-1-LE-1 1 mg
EUR 164

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Heat Shock, Protease DNASE Free, pH 7.0

7920-100
EUR 914

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Heat Shock, Protease DNASE Free, pH 7.0

7920-1000 Ask for price

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Heat Shock, Protease DNASE Free, pH 7.0

7920-25
EUR 370

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Heat Shock, Protease DNASE Free, pH 7.0

7920-5
EUR 153

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Heat Shock, Fatty Acid Free, pH 7.0

7921-100
EUR 1132

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Heat Shock, Fatty Acid Free, pH 7.0

7921-25
EUR 446

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Heat Shock, Fatty Acid Free, pH 7.0

7921-5
EUR 175

Rat Serum Albumin

30R-3297 10 mg
EUR 187
Description: Purified native Rat Serum Albumin

Rat Complement Serum

32R-CR005 5 ml
EUR 435
Description: Purifed Rat Complement isolated from blood of normal rats

Normal Rat Serum

88-NR51 50 ml
EUR 599
Description: Normal Rat Serum

Normal Rat Serum

88R-1010 5 ml
EUR 202
Description: Normal Rat Serum which has been lipid extracted and dialyzed against 10 mM Sodium Phosphate, 0.15 M Sodium Chloride, pH 7.2

Hemopexin, Rat Serum

7545-100
EUR 283

Rat Free Tri-iodothyronine, Free-T3 ELISA Kit

CSB-E05076r-24T 1 plate of 24 wells
EUR 165
Description: Quantitative competitive ELISA kit for measuring Rat Free Tri-iodothyronine, Free-T3 in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates. A new trial version of the kit, which allows you to test the kit in your application at a reasonable price.

Rat Free Tri-iodothyronine, Free-T3 ELISA Kit

1-CSB-E05076r
  • EUR 500.00
  • EUR 3402.00
  • EUR 1820.00
  • 1 plate of 96 wells
  • 10 plates of 96 wells each
  • 5 plates of 96 wells each
Description: Quantitative competitive ELISA kit for measuring Rat Free Tri-iodothyronine, Free-T3 in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates. Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits.

GDNF (Rat), Carrier Free

PR15008CF 50 ug
EUR 1277

Urocortin (rat) (free acid)

5-02054 4 x 1mg Ask for price

Human IgG-Biotin (serum origin, purified >97%, low endotoxin, azide free)

20007-1-LE-BTN 100 ug
EUR 286

Human Male AB Serum (Converted from Plasma), Xeno-Free Heat Inactivated

AR1006-0100 100mL Ask for price

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Cohn Fraction V, Fatty Acid Free, pH ? 7.0

7907-100
EUR 653

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Cohn Fraction V, Fatty Acid Free, pH ? 7.0

7907-25
EUR 245

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Cohn Fraction V, Fatty Acid Free, pH ? 7.0

7907-5
EUR 120

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Cohn Fraction V, Fatty Acid Free, pH ? 5.2

7908-100
EUR 653

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Cohn Fraction V, Fatty Acid Free, pH ? 5.2

7908-25
EUR 245

Bovine Serum Albumin ? Cohn Fraction V, Fatty Acid Free, pH ? 5.2

7908-5
EUR 120

Rat Free Tri-iodothyronine Indes(Free-T3)ELISA Kit

GA-E0745RT-48T 48T
EUR 317

Rat Free Tri-iodothyronine Indes(Free-T3)ELISA Kit

GA-E0745RT-96T 96T
EUR 496
Combining CCS outcomes of the 2 most promising shift reagents allowed for the entire differentiation of all eight disaccharide requirements examined in this research.